Prediksi soal TOEFL bagian Reading tahun 2022 (Part 1) + Kunci Jawaban


Color in textiles is produced by dyeing, by printing, or by painting. Until the nineteenth century, all dyes were derived from vegetable or, more rarely, animal or mineral sources, Since madder plants could be grown practically everywhere, the roots of some species of the madder plant family were used from the earliest period to produce a whole range of reds. Red animal dyes, derived! from certain species of scale insects, were also highly valued from ancient times through the Middle Ages. Blues were obtained from indigo, which was widely .cultivated in India and exported from there, and from woad, a plant common in Europe and also used in the Near East from the beginning of the Christian era. Before the first, nonfading "solid" green was invented in the early nineteenth century, greens were achieved by the overdyeing or overprinting of yellow and blue. However, yellow dyes± whether from weld or some other plant source such as saffron or turmeric, invariably fade or disappear. This accounts for the bluish tinge of what were once bright greens in, for example, woven tapestry.

The range of natural colors was hugely expanded and, indeed, superseded by the chemical dyes developed during the eighteen hundreds. By 1900 a complete range of synthetic colors had been evolved, many of them reaching a standard of resistance to fading from exposure to light and to washing that greatly exceeded that of natural dyestuffs. Since then, [he petroleum industry has added many new chemicals, and from hese other types of dyestuffs have been developed. Much of the research in dyes was stimulated by the peculiarities of some of the new synthetic fibers- Acetate rayon, for example, seemed at first to have no affinity for dyes and a new range of dyes had to be developed; nylon and Terylene presented similar problems.

The printing of textiles has involved a number of distinct methods. With the exception of printing patterns directly onto the cloth, whether by block, roller, or screen, all of these arc based on dyeing; that is, the immersion of the fabric in a dye bath.

1. The passage mainly discusses the

  • (A) development of synthetic colors foe textiles during the nineteenth century
  • (B) advantages of chemical dyes over dyes derived from plants and animals
  • (C) differences between dyeing textiles and printing ihem
  • (D) history of the use of natural and chemical dyes to color textiles


2. According to the passage, what was the source of most textile dyes that were used before the nineteenth century?

  • (A) Animals
  • (B) Minerals
  • (C) Plants
  • (D) Chemicals


3. What was the advantage of using madder plants for different shades of red?

  • (A) It was possible to cultivate madder plants in almost every location,
  • (B) Madder plants produced brighter colors than other plant sources.
  • (C) Plant sources produced more lasting colors than animal sources.
  • (D) Dyes derived from the madder plants were easier to work with than other dyes-


4. The word "invariably" ID line 13 is closest in meaning to

  • (A) without exception
  • (B) steadily
  • (C) after some time
  • (D) noticeably


5. It can be inferred from the passage that the green areas in woven tapestries developed a bluish tinge because

  • (A) a darker color, like blue, dominates a light color, like yellow
  • (B) light changed some of the green dye used in the tapestries to blue
  • (C) the yellow dye. that was used in the tapestries had faded
  • (D) the dyes used to color woven tapestries were made from minerals


6. The word "superseded" in line 15 is closest in meaning to

  • (A) strengthened
  • (B) improved
  • (C) replaced
  • (D) complemented


7. According to the passage, how did chemical dyes compare to natural dyes?

  • (A) The chemical dyes had less attractive colors.
  • (B) The chemical dyes were less easy to use.
  • (C) The chemical dyes lost their brightness more quickly when exposed to light.
  • (D) The chemical dyes held up belter after washing.


8 According to the passage, what problem led to the development of new dyes after 1900 ?

  • (A) Previously developed dyes did not work on new types of fibers.
  • (B) Dyes derived from petroleum caused damage to new synthetic fibers.
  • (C) New synthetic fibers required brighter colors tijan natural fibers did.
  • (D) New fabrics easily lost their colors when washed.

9. Why does the author mention "block, roller, or screen" in line 25 ?

  • (A) To give examples of textile printing techniques that are based on dyeing
  • (B) To argue that all methods of printing patterns onto textiles involve dyeing
  • (C) To emphasize the variety of special tools used in me process of dyeing textiles
  • (D) To give examples of textile printing techniques mat do not involve 



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