Food Crops


Target Words


  1. abandon 6. intensify
  2. adversely 7. irrigation
  3. aggregate 8. obtain
  4. cultivation 9. photosynthesis
  5. fertilize 10. precipitation


TOEFL Prep I Complete each sentence by filling in the blank with the best word from the list. Change the form of the word if necessary. Use each word only once.


  1. Through __________, green plants create organic materials with the help of chlorophyll.
  2. The coastal city gets half of its __________ during the months of January, February, and March.
  3. Farmers use various methods of land __________.
  4. When they heard the hull crack, all but two of the sailors __________ ship.
  5. Inexperienced gardeners may not realize how important it is that they __________ their plants.


TOEFL Prep II Find the word or phrase that is closest in meaning to the opposite of each word in the left-hand column. Write the letter in the blank.


  1. obtain (a) weaken
  2. intensify (b) separate
  3. irrigation (c) lose
  4. aggregate (d) drainage
  5. adversely (e) positively


TOEFL Success Read the passage to review the vocabulary you have learned. Answer the questions that follow


In countries like Niger and Mauritania, the cultivation of land has changed little in the past several centuries. Additionally, these countries’ mono-modal rainfall pattern brings precipitation for only three months during the year. As a result, food production doesn’t nearly meet demand. In countries like Niger and Mauritania, the cultivation of land has changed little in the past several centuries. Additionally, these countries’ mono-modal rainfall pattern brings precipitation for only three months during the year. As a result, food production doesn’t nearly meet demand. 


Several agencies and organizations have intensified their efforts to increase the productivity of land in these countries.They have introduced new strains of seed, improved irrigation techniques, and introduced new methods of fertilization and soil management. With ample sunlight for photosynthesis and modern irrigation techniques, sustainable farming techniques should allow farmers to boost aggregate production in order to meet demand


Still, crop revitalization faces an unexpected adversary: institutional incompetence.Where crop specialists have convinced individual farmers to abandon old farming techniques in place of new, they can’t readily obtain the governmental cooperation they need.The biggest hurdles are political corruption, incompetence, and the absence of a marketing infrastructure.

  1. In this passage, the word adversary is closest in meaning to..... (a. friend b. helper c. enemy d. leader)
  2. In the last paragraph, the word they refers to.... (a. crop specialists b. farmers c. farming techniques d. adversaries)




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