Prediksi soal TOEFL bagian Structure tahun 2022 (Part 6) + Kunci Jawaban


1. When ---in arctic regions, the Aleuts construct igloos as temporary winter shelters.

(A) travel

(B) to travel

(C) traveling them

(D) traveling

 

答案:D

测试点:省略句。

分析:引导状语成分的连词when可后接从句或亦可接分词。When+分词短语相当于从句省掉了主语和系词,即when(the Aleuts are)traveling in arctic legions(A)动词原形和(B)不定式均不可与when连用作状语;(C)多了them.

解题要点:时间状语从句的连词(when,while)后可直接加分词短语。条件是这一从句的主语应与主句的主语同一人/物。

 

2. Most substances contract when they freeze so that the density of a substance’s solid is ---of its liquid.

(A) than the higher density

(B) higher than the density

(C) the density is higher than that

(D) the higher the density

 

答案:B

测试点:比较级/词序.

分析:比较级的句式要求动词+形容词或副词比较级+than+被比较的成份,4个答案中只有(B)符合此结构.

 

3. The mechanism by which brain cells store memories is ---clearly understood.

(A) none

(B) no

(C) not

(D) nor

 

答案:C

测试点:否定词.

分析:否定动词要用副词not.

 

4. Desert animals ---a means of retaining moisture in such a hot, dry climate if they are to survive.

(A) need

(B) needing

(C) to need

(D) was needed

 

答案:A

测试点:谓语.

分析:空格两边都是名词性成份,说明所缺为谓语动词.答案中(A)可作谓语.(B)(C)不能单独作谓语;(D)用了被动式,与句意不合。

 

5. ---state of Wyoming is also known as the “Equality State” because Wyoming women were the first in the nation to vote.

(A) The

(B) There is a

(C) That the

(D) As the

 

答案:A

测试点:冠词.

分析:空格后是一完整的复合句,空格内不可能填入带有连词或动词成分的(B)(C)(D).这里缺少的是限定state of Wyoming的定冠词the.

 

6. Fructose is a monosaccharide sugar that is much sweeter ---.

(A) than cane sugar does

(B) does cane sugar

(C) cane sugar

(D) than cane sugar

 

答案:D

测试点:比较句式.

分析:看到比较级的sweeter一词,就应在答案中寻找以than开头的形式,即(A)(D)(A)中动词does与比较级前半部分系词不一致,而答案(D)是省略了系词is.的正确形式.

解题要点;比较级结构要求前后比较的两部分句子结构一样,应然,助动词(dodoesdid)及系词(be)在后半部分可以省略.

 

7. Ground plans and contour maps of the Earth ---from aerial photographs.

(A) can be drawn

(B) can draw

(C) to draw

(D) drawn

 

答案:A

测试点:谓语/被动语态.

分析:空格前是名词性成份,所缺为谓语动词.空格后有from短语,说明谓语动词应为被动态,故选(A)(B)为主动态;(C)(D)都是动词的非谓语形式分词,前缺助动词.

解题要点:空格后出现fromby的短语,动词常常是被动态.

 

8. By the middle of the twentieth century, painters and sculptors in the United States had begun to exert ---over art.

(A) influence worldwide a great

(B) a great worldwide influence

(C) influence a great worldwide

(D) a worldwide influence

 

答案:B

测试点:词序。

分析:exert的宾语应是名词influence,应在答案中分辨哪个是以influence为中心词的词,即(B).

解题要点;多个形容词修饰名词时词序排列是有规律的.其中心词名词位置一般在最后,冠词在最前面.其间的多个形容词则依与中心名词的修饰关系的强弱而从后往前排列.此句首先强调的是一个全球性的影响(world wide influence)然后再说明这个“全球性影响”是巨大的(agreat worldwide influencc).

 

9. ---millions of galaxies exist in the vast space outside the Milky Way.

(A) It is estimated that

(B) An estimate that

(C) That is estimated

(D) That the estimated

 

答案:A

测试点:形式主语/复合句。

分析:空格后为完整的句子,空格前可能是短语或句子。(B)(D)都是不完整的结构;(C)与后文之间无连词,故选(A)It是形式主语,that后的从句才是真正的主语.

 

10. The extent of the harmful effect of locoweeds on animals depends on the soil ---the plants grow.

(A) which

(B) which in

(C) in which

(D) in

 

答案:C

测试点:介词+which结构.

分析:空格后为主谓完整的定语从句.In which=where(介词+关系代词=关系副词),用来修饰先行词soil,表示地点.

解题要点:关系代词which在宾语从句中,应承担其主语或宾语的身份.如从句中主语、宾语俱全(或如此句grow为不及物动词,无需有宾语),则应考虑用关系副词,或其变形介词+which。此形式为TOEFL常考题型。

 

11. The operetta first ---as a popular form of musical theater in the nineteenth century.

(A) to emerge

(B) emerging

(C) has emerged

(D) emerged

 

答案:D

测试点:谓语.

分析:句中缺谓语动词,而(A)(B)都是动词的非谓语形式,不可单独作谓语.(C)是完成时,不能与副词first搭配,故选(D).

 

12. ---complex organic catalysts originating in living cells.

(A) Enzymes

(B) Enzymes are

(C) Enzymes which are

(D) Enzymes while they

 

答案:B

测试点:主谓结构.

分析:句子主、谓均缺,应在答案中选择主语+动词的形式,即(B)(A)无动词;(C)(D)含有从句.

 

13. In the eastern part of New Jersey ---, a major shipping and manufacturing center.

(A) lies the city of Elizabeth

(B) the city of Elizabeth lies there

(C) around the city of Elizabeth lies

(D) there lies the city of Elizabeth around

 

答案:A

测试点:倒装句。

分析:表示地点的介词短语放在句首,通常后面的句子要倒装。应在答案中选择动词+名词的形式,即(A).

解题要点;遇到倒装句,在4个答案中寻找以动词开头的形式.

 

14. Work in parapsychology, ---, has attracted a relatively small number of scientists.

(A) is a very controversial field

(B) which a very controversial field is

(C) a very controversial field

(D) a field very controversial which

 

答案:C

测试点:同位语.

分析:主语后面的空格,两边用逗号隔开,常常要么是分词短语作定语,要么是同位语.应在答案中选择说明主语性质的名词性结构作其同位语,即(C)(A)多了动词;(B)(D)与从句有关.

 

15. ---, the constitution of the Cherokee Nation provided for a chief executive, a senate, and a house of representatives.

(A) In 1827 they drafted

(B) The draft in 1827

(C) In 1827 was drafted

(D) Drafted in 1827

 

答案:D

测试点:分词短语/状语。

分析:空格位于句首,后面用逗号与完整的句子隔开,所缺常常是状语。(D)为分词短语,作时间状语。

解题要点;过去分词+in+年份是TOEFL常考短语.

 

16. Sociological studies have found that deeply hold values and principles are highly resistant to change.

 

答案:B

测试点:词形.

分析:修饰名词values应当用动词的过去分词,而hold是动词原形.应为held.

解题要点:分词的作用相当于形容词.

 

17. For centuries large communities of people have living on houseboats in parts of the world where the climate is warm and the waters are calm.

 

答案:A

测试点:时态.

分析:Have living是错误用法,应为have been living

 

18. Benjamin Franklin made the first bifocal spectacles for self by sawing the lenses of his eyeglasses in half.

 

答案:B

测试点:反身代词/近义词。

分析:self为名词,意为“自我,本性”;此处应用反身代词himself指代主语Benjamin Franklin.

 

19. Not only do artificial reefs provide fish with food and shelter, they also serve as importantly underwater landmarks.

 

答案:D

测试点:词性.

分析:修饰名词landmarks应用形容词,而importantly是副词.应为important.

解题要点:当划线的是-ly结尾的副词时,应注意其是否错用,是否应为形容词.

 

20. The United States Department of Agriculture supervises the quality, clean, and purity of meat.

 

答案:A

测试点:并列结构.

分析:关键词是and,它所连接的部分应同词性、同形式.此处应用名词cleannessqualitypurity并列。

 

21. All birds, alike most reptiles and a few primitive mammals, develop from embryos in eggs outside the mother’s body.

 

答案:B

测试点:likealike的用法。

分析:TOEFL题中,这两个词常见错用.alike是形容词或副词,like才是介词,可后接名词.此处应为like.

解题要点:题目中遇有划线的alike,应首先考虑它是否用错.

 

22. The expansion of adult training programs has resulted partially from the feminist movement, which encouraging women to improve their skills for the job market.

 

答案:C

测试点:词形.

分析:which是从句主语,其后接谓语动词.encouraging不能单独作谓语.应为encourages.

 

23. The most significant cosmological characteristic of the galaxies are the red shift in their optical spectra.

 

答案:B

测试点:主谓数的一致.

分析:主语是单数的characteristic,系动词也要用单数的is不用are.

 

24. James Whistler was indifferent to the titles of his painted and even changed the names of some works years after their completion.

 

答案:C

测试点:词性。

分析:代词his后接名词性成份,而painted是动词的形式。应为paintings

 

25. Duke Ellington’s orchestra, playing his original compositions and arrangements, achieving a fine unity of style and made numerous innovations in modern jazz.

 

答案:B

测试点:词性/并列结构

分析:此句由and连接两个并列的谓语部分,此处应用achievedmade并列.

 

26. Moles are almost completely blind, although its tiny eyes can distinguish light from dark.

 

答案:B

测试点:代词数的一致.

分析:此处代词所代为复数的Moles,因此也应用复数的their.

解题要点:代词与其所指代的名词数的不一致是TOEFL常考题型,改错题中有划线的代词则应首先考虑其单复数是否正确.

 

27. Noise is a psychological term referring toward unpleasant, unwanted, or intolerable sound.

 

答案:B

测试点:习语。

分析:Refer to是固定的短语,不用toward

 

28. Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman medical doctor in the United States, founded the New York Infirmary, an institution that have always had a completely female medical staff.

 

答案:C

测试点:主谓数的一致.

分析:that引导的定语从句修饰先行词an institution,从句主语that指代单数的Institution,故其谓语也应用动词的单数形式.have应为has.

 

29. Criminal contempt, committed in the presence of the court, may consist of disorderly behavior, disrespectful, or disobedience of a judge’s orders.

 

答案:D

测试点:词性/并列结构.

分析:连词or所连接的成份应同词性、同形式.句中or前后均是名词,固此,(D)disrespectful应为disrespect.

解题要点:orand一样,当连接两项或两项以上并列成分时,应注意相连各项是否相等。

 

30. The Cubist movement in art was a reaction against traditional methods of portray reality.

 

答案:C

测试点:词形.

分析:of要求后接名词性的成份作其宾语,而portray是动词.应用动名词portraying.

 

31. During the 1600’s skilled shoemakers scarce were in what is now the United States.

 

答案:C

测试点:词序.

分析:形容词scarce应置于系词were的后面,作表语.

 

32. If a atom loses any of its electrons, it becomes positively charged and can combine chemically with other atoms.

 

答案:A

测试点:冠词.

分析:aan的用法atom是以元音开头的名词,前面冠词要用an而不用a.

解题要点:注意划线的冠词aan是否用错.

 

33. The National Education Association conduct extensive research on a great many aspects of education.

 

答案:A

测试点:主谓数的一致。

分析:主语Association为单数,谓语动词也要用单数形式。应为conducts

 

34. The pain-killing agent most commonly administered in dentistry is the local anesthetic, who produces loss of feeling only in a specific area.

 

答案:C

测试点:从句连接词whowhich的用法.

分析:定语从句修饰说明anesthetic(麻醉剂),作主语的关系代词,指代的是物不是人,不能用who.应为which.

解题要点:who/which混淆用错的题型在TOEFL考题中很常见.遇到这两个关系代词划线时,应务必认清它所限定的先行词是人还是物.

 

35. Certain types of computers work properly only in environments with controlled precisely temperatures.

 

答案:D

测试点:词序.

分析:分词作定语时,与其所修饰的名词之间不要加入副词.应为precisely controlled(temperature)

 

36. The gorilla, while not as curious than the chimpanzee, shows more persistence and memory retention in solving a problem.

 

答案:B

测试点:as…as…的用法.

分析:看到句中的as,应立即注意后面的即是否缺失.than应为as.

解题要点:连词asthan本毫无关系,词意也不相同,但TOEFL考题中竞有几次把二者混淆错用.应注意划线的asthan.

 

37. The belief in fairies have existed from earliest times, and the literature of many countries includes tales of fairies and their relationship to humans.

 

答案:A

测试点:主谓数的一致.

分析:主语为单数的belief,谓语也要用单数的动词形式.have应为has.

 

38. Acrylic paint enables artists to experiment with many colors effects.

 

答案:D

测试点:名词的数.

分析:名词作定语时,应用其单数形式,不加s.此处应用color修饰effects.

 

39. Salt Lake City, Utah’s capital and largest city, is industrial and banking center.

 

答案:C 测试点:冠词。

分析:名词center前缺冠词。应为is an industrial(…center)

 

40. A rat’s sharp teeth can gnaw through wood, plaster, or soft metallic such as lead.

 

答案:D

测试点:词性/并列结构.

分析:连词旧两边的成份应同词性,同形式.此处应用名词与woodplaster并列.metallic是形容词;应为metal.另外,短语such as应紧接在名词后面,亦可推知它前面的应当是名词.


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